Establishing a SODDED Lawn
Establishing a healthy, attractive lawn means
planting the best grass
for your site at the right time and in a careful manner. The type of grass and the
planting method you select will determine the best time of year to plant. Site and
soil preparation, including fertilization, are especially important.
Preparing the site involves removing weeds and debris, planning for drainage, and
grading the site.
- Control perennial weeds with a nonselective herbicide. Hard-to-control weeds
may require the services of a professional.
- Remove debris. Insist that the builder not use the site as a dumping ground for
paint, concrete, and other materials.
- Plan for easy maintenance and a pleasing appear-ance. Avoid terraces, steep grades,
poorly drained areas, and heavily shaded spots.
- Install tile drain in poorly drained areas. Get profes-sional advice about the type
of drain and installation.
- Remove the topsoil (usually 4 to 8 inches) and stockpile it nearby if grading is
needed. (If bringing topsoil from other sites, be cautious. It may contain hard-to-control
weeds or weed seeds.)
- Build protective walls to save trees if the final grade is to be appreciably higher
than the present level.
- Shape the underlying subsoil to the desired contour, and redistribute topsoil uniformly
above the subsoil. A 2 to 3 percent slope is needed for proper drainage away from
buildings. Make certain the soil is firmed after shaping. There should be no visible
footprints after walking on it.
- Water the area to enhance settling. Fill areas that settle unevenly to avoid standing
- If possible, mix 1 to 2 cubic yards of peat moss or compost per 1,000 sq ft into
the top 6 to 8 inches of subsoil if planting in heavy clay or very sandy soils.
Clay soils are prone to compaction and require frequent aerification (removal of
Well-prepared soil with adequate nutrients for growing grass encourages the development
of a healthy lawn.
- Take soil samples from the front yard and the backyard to determine soil pH and
nutrient requirements. A single soil test may be all that is necessary if there
are no obvious differences in soil texture, terrain, or troubled areas of the front
yard and backyard. If the soils seem different, collect soil samples to a depth
of 3 to 4 inches from several (10 to 15) locations and mix them together to produce
a composite sample. Send approximately 1 cup of the air-dried soil sample to the
NCDA & CS Agronomic Division Soil Testing Services, 1040 Mail Service Center, Raleigh
NC 27607. Boxes and forms can be obtained at your county Cooperative Extension center
or at the Agronomic Division office in Raleigh. Allow several weeks for the results
to be returned.
- Based on the soil test report recommendations or the fertilization guidelines presented
below, incorporate lime and fertilizer into the top 6 to 8 inches of the soil using
a disk or rototiller. Regardless of the region, a deeper root system is able to
extract more moisture and nutrients from the soil, improving drought tolerance and
overall health of the plant.
- Rake or harrow the site to establish a smooth and level final grade. Soil particles
should be no larger than marble size, and pea gravel size is even better. Hand raking
is the best way to level the soil and work out hills and hollows. Allow time for
rain or irrigation to settle the soil, and roll or cultipack lightly to firm the
soil before planting seed, sprigs, plugs, or sod. Hand rake again to break up the
crusty surface before planting.
How to Determine Fertilizer Requirements
To apply 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft:
Divide 100 by the first number on the fertilizer bag to determine the amount of
product to be used per 1,000 sq ft.
Example: A 16-4-8 fertilizer.
100 divided by 16 equals 6.25.
Therefore, 6.25 pounds of fertilizer per 1,000 square feet will deliver 1 pound
To apply 0.5 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft:
50 divided by the first number on the fertilizer bag equals the amount of product
to be used per 1,000 sq ft.
Example: A 10-10-10 fertilizer.
50 divided by 10 equals 5.
Therefore, 5 pounds of fertilizer per 1,000 sq ft will deliver 0.5 pound of nitrogen.
As recommended above, it’s best to submit a soil sample for testing when establishing
a new lawn to determine how much lime and fertilizer should be added to your soil.
This is especially important if you are planting centipedegrass. It prefers acidic
soils and low levels of phosphorus and may not require the addition of lime and
phosphorus. Fertilize before planting. Apply fertilizer and lime when the soil is
prepared based on these guidelines:
If you obtained a soil test: Apply the amount of lime and
fertilizer recommended for your soil by the soil testing laboratory. For additional
information about interpreting a soil test, visit this Web site: http://www.ncagr.com/agronomi/uyrst.htm
If you did not obtain a soil test: Follow these recommendations
for all grasses except centipedegrass.
- Apply 75 pounds of ground limestone per 1,000 sq ft.
- Apply a starter type fertilizer (one that is high in phosphorus) based on the type
of grass and the planting method. Fertilizer bags have a three-number system indicating
the primary nutrients, such as 8-8-8 or 5-10-10. These numbers denote the N-P-K
ratio—the percentage of each nutrient in a fertilizer. The percentages are always
noted in the following order:
N Nitrogen for green color and growth.
P2O5 Phosphorus for good establishment and rooting.
K2O Potassium to enhance pest and environmental stress tolerance.
Some common examples of starter type fertilizers required for a 1,000 sq ft area
include 40 pounds of 5-10-10, 20 pounds of 10-20-20, or 16 pounds of 18-24-6. For
sandy soils, typical to the coastal plain and sandhills of North Carolina, fertilizer
rates should be increased by 20 percent.
Figure 3. Suggested pattern for applying fertilizer
Fertilize after planting. Apply fertilizers uniformly and with
care using a centrifugal (rotary) or drop-type spreader. Apply half the fertilizer
in one direction and the other half moving at right angles to the first pass to
ensure thorough and uniform coverage (See Figure 3).
For vegetatively planted (sprigged) warm-season grasses: Fertilize
throughout the first growing season to encourage faster spread. Every three to four
weeks during the growing season, add 0.5 to 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft
until the plants have completely covered the desired lawn area.
To help reduce turf loss: Avoid high nitrogen fertilization of
cool-season grasses in the late spring or summer and of warm-season grasses in the
fall or winter. If higher nitrogen fertilization is applied, there may be a greater
occurrence of diseases.
When to Plant
Grass types by season
Bluegrass/Tall Fescue mixes
You may successfully install a cool-season grass sod anytime in the cooler portions
of the growing season when the ground is not frozen.
Warm-season grasses are best established by sodding at the same dates suggested
for seeding, about April until July 1. Sod will not produce roots unless the soil
temperature exceeds 55°F for several weeks. Professional sod installers have been
successful in establishing lawns beyond those dates, but care must be given to ensure
that the soil does not dry out.
How to Plant
Sodding is placing sod stripped from one site to another for an “instant” lawn. Lay sod as soon as possible
after it has been harvested to prevent injury.
- Make sure the soil is moist (but not overly wet) before laying sod. Irrigating the soil several days before delivery is often adequate.
- Install the sod within 24 hours of delivery. Plan to unstack and unroll the sod if it cannot be laid within 48 hours.
- While installing, keep sod in the shade to lessen the chance of heat buildup.
- Start sodding from a straight edge (driveway or sidewalk), and butt strips together, staggering them in a bricklike pattern (See Figure 5).
- Avoid stretching sod. Use a knife or sharp spade for trimming to fit irregularly shaped areas.
- Lay sod lengthwise across the face of slopes, and peg or stake the pieces to prevent slippage.
- After the sod has been placed, roll the lawn to ensure good sod-to-soil contact. Then begin watering.
*Content taken in excerpts with permission from: NCSU Carolina Lawns