Maintaining an established sodded lawn
Improper irrigation of lawns results in wasted water, added cost, and
unhealthy plants. Water should be applied only when a reasonable portion of the
lawn shows signs of moisture stress. A dark bluish-gray color; footprints that remain
some time after walking; and wilted, folded, or curled leaves are indications that
it is time to water. A delay in watering at the first signs of wilt will generally
not result in permanent damage unless the turf is being allowed to go dormant. If
irrigation is not available or desirable, then an alternative to irrigating is to
allow the turf to go semi-dormant to dormant. Tall fescue, bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass
are tolerant of drought if allowed to go dormant. An irrigation water management
program is available online through the NC State TurfFiles Web site:
General watering recommendations include the following:
precautions if you do not plan to irrigate throughout the summer. Slowly ease a
lush, actively growing lawn into dormancy. This can be accomplished by allowing
the drought stress symptoms to appear between infrequent irrigation cycles, by mowing
high, and by not over-fertilizing with nitrogen. Brown, withered leaves are normal
signs of dormancy, so do not be alarmed by them. If the lawn is conditioned for
this stress and has a reasonable level of maintenance, it should survive without
permanent damage. Most turfgrasses can withstand 3 to 6 weeks (or longer) without
rainwater or irrigation and exhibit minimal or no damage, depending on the situation.
- Water in the early morning
if possible. This is the preferred time to water because it reduces the risk of
disease, water loss through evaporation, and improper water distribution. Also,
the demand for water by industry and municipalities is usually low at this time.
- Water established lawns to a depth of 6 to 8 inches to encourage deep rooting.
Usually, 1 inch of water per week is adequate. Ideally, this would not be applied
in one application. Applying 0.5 inch of water every three to four days is adequate
for most situations.
- Use cans or a rain gauge to determine how much water is
being delivered in a certain period of time. It takes 640 gallons of water to apply
1 inch of water per 1,000 sq. ft. Because clay soils accept water slowly, water
should be measured to prevent wasteful runoff. Water clay soils until runoff is
about to occur. Wait 30 minutes for the water to be absorbed. Then apply more water
until the desired depth or amount is achieved. This same technique can be used on
slopes and compacted soils. Few lawns established on clay soils can absorb more
than 0.5 inch of water per hour. Sandy soils require more frequent watering. Applying
0.5 inch of water every third day is usually sufficient. Adjust any automatic irrigation
system to supplement rainfall so that the lawn is not over-watered.
In the absence of rain, water dormant lawns with a minimal amount (about 0.25 inch)
every three weeks to keep the growing points hydrated. It is difficult to maintain
vibrant green color in cool-season grasses during the summer. Irrigation helps maintain
color, but may also increase the risk of disease. For this reason, it is particularly
important that cool-season grasses not be overwatered.
Use either a rotary (centrifugal) or reel (cylinder) mower. The reel mower is preferred
if grasses are cut to less than 1 inch.
- Keep the mower blades sharp and balanced. The cleanest cut and best mowing are obtained
when the mower blades are sharp. Dull mower blades reduce lawn quality by tearing
instead of cleanly cutting the grass. Tearing creates many ragged leaf ends that
quickly wither and bleach and are easy ports of entry for disease. Using a sharp
mower is especially important for difficult-to-mow grasses, such as zoysiagrass,
bahiagrass, and certain types of perennial ryegrass cultivars. A properly sharpened
and balanced mower blade will also reduce mower vibration, lengthen mower life,
and reduce fuel consumption by as much as 22 percent.
- Mow at the proper height. The frequency of mowing is governed by the desired grass
height and by the amount of growth, which depends on temperature, fertility, moisture
conditions, season, and the natural growth rate of the grass. In most instances,
this may amount to biweekly and weekly mowing. To maintain a high-quality lawn,
turfgrass should be cut often enough that less than 50 percent of the leaf surface
is removed with each mowing. The proper mowing heights are presented in
Carolina Lawns Table 2.
If the lawn gets too high during wet seasons, raise the mower and cut off a fourth
to a half of the present growth. Then lower the mower to its proper height and mow
again in a day or two.
- Leave clippings to decompose when they are short. Most homeowners bag lawn
clippings because they think that the clippings add to the buildup of thatch, which
can be harmful to the lawn. Actually, thatch is made up of roots, stems, and the
lower portions of leaves that are below the mower blade. Frequent mowing, mowing
when the grass is dry, and proper fertilization are the best ways to reduce thatch
buildup. Though studies have shown that a lawn of 1,000 square feet can produce
500 pounds of clippings in one growing season, these clippings contribute very little
to thatch. In fact, clippings that remain on the lawn quickly decompose and release
valuable nutrients. Fertilizer use can be reduced by 20 to 30 percent.
- Rake, bag, and remove the clippings when mowing is delayed. If prolonged periods
of rainfall prevent mowing, clippings may be long enough to shade or smother the
grass. In this case, rake, bag, and remove the clippings. Collected clippings can
be used as mulch around trees and shrubs or added to compost. Because yard trash
accounts for 20 percent of the waste in our overflowing landfills, legislation has
been passed that bans depositing yard trash in most public landfills. Homeowners
must now look for other alternatives. Contact your county Cooperative Extension
center for information about composting yard trash and other uses for this material.
A soil test should be made at least every two to three years to determine the amounts
of lime, phosphorus, and potassium needed by your established lawn. See page 11
for the method used to obtain a good soil sample. A complete fertilizer with an
N-P-K ratio of 4:1:2 or 4:1:3 can be used in lieu of a soil test, but it is a poor
Determine the amount of fertilizer, ratio of nutrients or fertilizer elements, and
time of application based on the grasses being grown. See
Carolina Lawns Table 6a, b, or c, depending
on your region, to determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer
to apply and the time of application.
Cool season grasses
Avoid any nitrogen fertilization of cool-season grasses, such as tall fescue, after
the February application until September for the central piedmont.
If one additional application of nitrogen is made between these dates to improve
the color, the rate should not exceed 0.5 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet.
This nitrogen should be applied in the central piedmont no later than April 15 (two
weeks earlier in the coastal plain and two weeks later in the mountains). This application
will not improve the longevity of tall fescue but will enhance its green color.
The application of high rates or repeated low rates of nitrogen to cool-season grasses
in the spring or summer greatly increases the severity of brown patch (Rhizoctonia
species), which can kill the grass and should be avoided. If spring or summer nitrogen
applications, or both, are applied to tall fescue, fungicide applications may be
necessary to reduce disease symptoms.
Avoid fall or winter applications of nitrogen to reduce winter injury.
Lime. Most soils in North Carolina are acidic and often require
the application of lime to sweeten the soil. For most turfgrasses, except centipedegrass,
soil pH should be between 6.5 and 7.0 for optimum nutrient availability. Centipedegrass
requires more acidic soil with a pH close to 5.5. Lime may be put on any time during
the year. Winter is usually best, however, because there is less traffic. Gentle
winter rains minimize runoff, and alternate freezing and thawing help incorporate
lime into the soil.
Fertilizers and lime should be applied uniformly with a centrifugal (rotary) or
drop-type spreader. Apply half the fertilizer in one direction and the other half
moving at right angles to the first pass to ensure uniform coverage
Carolina Lawns (see Figure
Soils that are subject to heavy traffic are prone to compaction. Coring will alleviate
this condition. Use a device that removes soil cores. Chop up the cores, and, if
possible, distribute them by dragging with a span of chain-link fence or a mat.
Coring should be accomplished when the lawn is actively growing so that it can recover
from any injury. Core cool-season grasses in fall or early spring. Core warm-season
grasses in late spring or early summer. Some lawn care and landscape companies offer
coring service if rental equipment is not available.
Power Raking (Verticutting)
Sod-forming grasses, such as Kentucky bluegrass, bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, St.
Augustinegrass, and centipedegrass, tend to build up thatch when they are heavily
fertilized and watered. When thatch exceeds 0.75 inch, lawns should be power raked
A light power raking is better than trying to remove too much debris at one time.
When not excessive, thatch buildup can be removed from warm-season grasses by cutting
as closely as possible at spring green-up and then raking by hand. To avoid seriously
injuring the lawn, a 3-inch blade spacing is required to remove thatch from centipedegrass
and St. Augustinegrass. Some lawn care and landscape companies have specialized
equipment and offer power raking services.
*Content taken in excerpts with permission from: NCSU Carolina Lawns